Tag Archives: howto

How to fix build error with UnityAds after upgrading to Unity 5

Is your Unity project using UnityAds? Did you just update to Unity 5? Are you now seeing an error when trying to build for Android? The read on…

Unity 5 now includes in-built support for UnityAds, without requiring the UnityAds plugin from the Asset Store. As such, if you’ve previously imported the plugin, Unity might complain. It may simply be fixable by choosing Assets > Reimport All (which might make Unity realise it should ‘ignore imported version’ of UnityAds). Continue reading How to fix build error with UnityAds after upgrading to Unity 5

Unity – How to make things see where they’re going

While developing a game, I wanted to enable characters to “see” where they’re going; that is, to tell them what they’re about to stumble into, without using colliders. The answer was to cast a Ray, angled slightly downward,  in front of the character, so he can “see” if he’s about to walk into a tree, or a river, before it happens. Continue reading Unity – How to make things see where they’re going

SmoothBitmap – How to enforce pixel smoothing on a Bitmap

A common oversight when using Bitmaps with loaded content is that Flash will revert a Bitmap’s smoothing parameter to false when you replace its bitmapData. It’s simple enough to fix, but since you may not know if someone is going to replace the bitmapData of a Bitmap you have created – then it’s often better to code defensively around it.

This little SmoothBitmap class is for just such an occassion. Instantiate it like a regular Bitmap and, no matter what another developer does with it, smooth pixels when scaling/rotating will be ensured.

Dependency Injection by Extension pattern

Since I’m not sure whether I have indeed invented a new design pattern here. So, alternative titles for this post include:

  • Dependency Injection without a Dependency Injection framework
  • Why misuse of the default namespace for tests is pure evil
  • How to make your code more testable without completely messing it up

The problem:
You need to use some kind of Dependency Injection (DI for short) to provision some System Under Test (SUT for short) in tests you’re writing, but can’t or don’t want to use a DI framework to do so.

Of course, the simplest form of DI is simply passing things to a constructor. But you probably don’t want to code every class to be handed every dependency at construction. And you definitely don’t want to expose the private parts of your implementation through some unnecessary interface. No, you really don’t!

I’ve seen scary examples of what I call ‘keyhole surgery’ on classes, either by abuse of the internal namespace to allow poking into otherwise private implementation, or just by making too many things public. Although the internal namespace (AKA the default namespace) is perceived to retain a sufficient level of encapsulation, it really doesn’t. Anything in the same package can jump all over it, so it’s somewhat of a loose interface. As such, you should never leave methods unscoped, letting them default to the internal namespace. You should also reserve the internal namespace only for when you are in control of all classes that will exist in the same package, such as when creating utility classes.

Loose interfaces are bad practice for a few reasons:

  • Clarity – anyone using the class will be confused as to the intentions of its interface
  • Stability – a class with such a loose interface is open to misuse and a recipe for failure
  • Cleanliness – code for tests does not belong in your production code
  • Testability – you should test a class through its interface, not its implementation
  • Flexibility – it is hard to refactor classes that leak implementation detail in such a way

The solution:
Well, this is one possible solution and ultimately just my suggestion. It’s especially useful when needing to refactor classes with overuse of the internal namespace, since you won’t need to change much test or production code. I call it the Dependency Injection by Extension pattern.

How it works:
You provide DI helpers as protected methods in your SUT and subclass it from within your test case, as a script-level class, to expose the DI helpers as public and/or use the constructor to do some of the DI work – allowing you to inject mocked dependencies for your tests. This has the advantage of not allowing anything else to meddle with your SUT, other than through its interface, of course. And, if anything in your production code wishes to extend your SUT, potentially overriding and messing up the interface, then that class should have its own tests anyway.

The following example shows a very basic class (SystemUnderTest) being extended from within its testcase (SomeTest) to allow injection and access to its dependencies, for the purpose of verifying its behaviour under given conditions.